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AMY GOSS

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GLOBALISATION – Connecting the world.

 

CONTENT –

Introduction – Page two

Lecture week (Sharon Davis- Lindy Hop) – Page two to five

YouTube – Page five – seven

Internet and social media – Page seven to ten

Conclusion – Page ten

Bibliography – Page ten to twelve

Images – Page thirteen to fourteen

 

Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected. (BBC, 2006) It is one of the biggest factors that is shaping our world’s economy. Although it has been there for many years now, recently it has become more widely spread and the speed has rapidly increased. It increases the trade (internationally), movement of goods and services. This essay looks at how the world is connected online and offline. Starting from before the wars to after and when the internet was created, the world changed in such short space of time.

During the week commencing 14th November, we were invited to the Luton campus for a week of lectures. We had the normal lecturers and guest speakers come in to talk about globalisation in their profession/hobbies. On the Tuesday, we had Sharon Davis, a professional dancer who mainly specialises in the Lindy Hop and Charleston. She spoke about how the dance originated from a small town in New Orleans, America called Storyville. Storyville was a designated red light district this is due to the police wanting to reduce the amount of STD’s and hookers across New Orleans by restricting it to one area. Storyville contained saloons, dance clubs and brothels where dancing and music began to thrive. As once sang by Robbie Robertson in ‘Go Back To Your Woods’ “When the night goes down on Storyville, If the women don’t get ya, the music will…” (Robertson, 1991). This is where Jazz music started to become known. The music was created by African Americans who were living in the segregated world, this started to change in Storyville when the white people started hearing the Jazz music that was being created, it started to bring everyone together in the town.

Jazz music had spread to other towns and cities across America, one town even created a fast-paced dance to go with the music, the dance was named after the town, and was called the Charleston. The dance is known for its crazy swinging arm movements, kicking and flicking of legs and feet. The legs and arm movements are traditionally done in opposites directions to each other and often lifts are added to the dance too, the dance is very wild and fun which was very different to the other dances of the time. According to BBC Strictly Come Dancing “At its height of popularity the Charleston was banned from many dance halls because of it’s outrageous behaviour.” This showed that some people weren’t as accepting of this type of dancing as those in Storyville and Charleston were at the time.

Sadly, at the height of the Charleston and Jazz era, the first world war hit and the residence / regulars of Storyville were sent to fight the war across the world. This not only split dance partners up but many of the famous Jazz bands of the time. The music and dancing died out and Storyville was shut down at the start of the war due to it being classed as an immoral place for soldiers to visit. A song once composed by Clarence and Spencer Williams in 1925, described the fall of Storyville and how much it impacted them that much they wrote a song about it. Eventually the song was sung by the incredible Jazz vocalist, Billie Holiday, “All, you old-time queens, from New Orleans, who lived in Storyville, You sang the blues, try to amuse, here’s how they pay the bill, The law step-in and call it sin to have a little fun, The police car has made a stop and Storyville is done” (Billie Holiday & Louis Armstrong – farewell to Storyville, 2006)

When the war ended, the dancers and bands now lived in new cities and towns where they had started their new lives. Many passing down their dance and musical knowledge to their children. The younger generation were in the mood to celebrate the ending of the war, and they wanted to be different to their parents who let the war happen in the first place. They started to dance as a sign as of rebellion. Dance Halls began popping up all over America, one of the most famous was The Savoy Ballroom in Harlem, New York City. In October 1956, Ebony magazine revealed in an article, “The Home Of Happy Feet,” That “Blonde film star Lana Turner renamed a world-famous Harlem dance hall with her remark: “What happy feet these people have!” From that moment on, when the Savoy Ballroom was mentioned, one unconsciously added: “The Home Of Happy Feet!” (Jet magazine, 1992:58).

The Savoy was the biggest dance hall America had or has ever seen, this was also one of the first non-segregated dance halls where blacks and whites could dance together in peace, which was unheard of and a very different picture to the world outside the doors. The music was growing in popularity and so did the bands, four piece groups turned into an eight piece and were forever growing in size and fame. Due to the bands doubling in size the music began to get more complex, a new version of Jazz music was beginning to spring up. It was called Swing. Alongside the new music, dancing was changing too. Born from the Charleston a new dance began to arise in the Savoy Ballroom.

– IMAGE ONE – As Jazz wasn’t widely accepted across America yet, the Savoy Ballroom commissioned posters to be made to advertise the Lindy Hop competitions they hosted every Saturday night. It was a very simple design but that all they could do at this time. Advertising and poster hadn’t really been around before the war, they were created as propaganda to entice young men to join the army. Posters were printed that made the army look exciting. Other posters told men it was their duty to join and they would feel proud if they did. (BBC, 2014).

This wasn’t the only means of advertisement. Radio was the main means of entertainment this was before the cinema became widely use. By the end of the 1920s, 50 million people had a radio set. (BBC, 2006). This meant that people could begin to listen to Jazz and other genres more freely without being judged. This helped the rise of Jazz because ‘Not everyone could read, so the radio became a very important means of communicating news and information to the people.’ (BBC, 2006). Therefore, Jazz meant a big deal to people because it was a way of both entertainment and expression for people who had no other means before home radios and Jazz.

One day, a journalist watching the people perform asked a dancer by the name of Shorty George, what dance were the people doing. He replied the Lindy Hop as a witty answer but it stuck. The smallest pair on the floor, Mattie Purnell and George Snowden, gathered a $15 gold prize for the fanciest performance of a new dance called the “Lindbergh Hop.” (The World Newspaper, 1928). Shorty George was said to have got the name “Lindy Hop” from reading the headline from a newspaper. Lindbergh Hops off for Paris (The Baltimore News, 1927).

The dance since has become one of the biggest dance fad of all time! The Lindy Hop: A true national folk dance has been born in U.S.A. (Life, 1934:126). The magazine has a 12 double page spreads about the Lindy Hop included mainly white dances but one black couple. This was something the world wasn’t used to as blacks were segregated to the whites and finally they were being shown in a magazine dancing. To its credit, jazz has long been a powerful antidote to racism in America. A democratic force, the African-American art form has brought together blacks and whites. Rooted in freedom and spontaneity, it was bringing blacks and whites together to collaborate and socialize decades before court rulings and the civil rights movement made strides toward equality. (McNally, 2000). Once again a war struck and everyone was split up, moved around the world and the dancing died out all over again.

Due to the war splitting partners up and sending band members to other countries the spread of dance would never have happened as fast as it did. Today’s rise of the internet has had a similar sort of effect. It spreads videos, news, art at a speed it would never be able to without it.

The Gangnam style was my generation biggest dance fad. All the way from Seoul, South Korea, Psy the Korean pop star shot into stardom back in 2012 after his music video for his song Gangnam style became viral. As of writing this essay the video has been viewed close to 3 BILLION times! Making it the most watched video on the internet. Without the internet, this would never have made it to our country nor probably existed. Once Psy posted his music video, the relatively unknown Korean Pop star (also referred to as K pop) nor the world could predict the chaos it would cause. Social media fueled the spread of the video and within seconds you could share it with all your friends and family then all their friends and family and so on. Due to the online sharing the video had racked up thousands of views this would only spike again once the media picks up on it. In a matter of days it was in magazines, on the news and parody videos of the original started to emerge and it only made it more popular. This not only helped his music career but helped the rise of YouTube.

YouTube is a video hosting platform that allows users to upload videos which include self-generated music clips, educational videos, TV clips and amateur content such as video blogging. It is also a platform for music companies and corporations to release official music videos, movie trailers and also business advertising. (Mathew, 2013).

YouTube is still a relatively new thing as it only turned eleven this year. Founded in 2005 by Chad Meredith Hurley who spotted a gap in the market of video sharing. The first video posted was called ‘Me at the zoo’ uploaded by user Jawed has over 34 million views to date.

By July 2006 less than a year after its start, the site was already receiving more that 65,000 uploads per day, and all the videos had a combined viewing of 100 million watches every single day! The growth in a short space of time was something that nobody had seen coming. It was a dream come true for the founder Chad considering, ‘YouTube started as an online dating site.’ (Nieva, 2016).

YouTube hit the top of the internet being one of the top 3 most visited sites alongside Facebook and Google (who now owns them). The platform allows you to upload videos for any length, style or topic (as long as it complies with their long list of guidelines). The videos can be to entertain and/or educate.

YouTube entertainment isn’t limited to YouTube alone. YouTube clips are being shown on the news, and on popular television shows like Good Morning America and Ellen. Whereas people used to ask friends, over dinner, whether or not they had seen the latest box office hit, now people ask if their friends have seen the latest viral video and odds are they have. (O’Neill, 2010). YouTube has made the world a smaller place but for the better. For instance, Justin Bieber was scouted after a manager saw a video of him busking on the streets in Canada, now he’s one of the world’s biggest popstars.

The possibilities with YouTube are endless, alongside all the entertaining aspects, it is also a very education space. You can find a video on practically anything that you need. From how to fold a shirt in two seconds to videos teaching you how to be a YouTuber, it’s all there. Many designers (including myself) regularly use YouTube to watch tutorials on how to complete things in Photoshop, InDesign and any other programme I get stuck on. YouTube videos allow designers like myself to listen to talks and watch videos from our favourite artist both dead and alive, from all over the world talk about how they complete their work and showing us. For a part of my work we must attend a minimum of 5 artist talks, YouTube allows me to pick the artists I want to learn about. The world of Graphic Design is forever evolving and we as designers don’t have time to sit around listen to people who don’t inspire us creatively or mentally. YouTube has become more of a teaching tool to me since I went to university, its allowed me to develop and enhance my skills and hobbies in half the time.

Without the internet, YouTube wouldn’t exist. A lot of things wouldn’t exist without it, one of those things is Globalisation, well not quite but it would be so slow, practically non-existent. Globalisation was fuelled by the technology revolution. The internet is a huge network of computers all connected. The internet allows us to connect to the world instantly.

The world-wide web (‘www’ or ‘web’ for short) is a collection of websites found on this network of computers. Your web browser uses the internet to access the web. (BBC, 2016). The world-wide web was launched in 1989 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee. He was said to have one of the reasons he created the web was because he noticed that the world was having trouble with sharing information. Already, millions of computers were being connected through the fast-developing Internet and Berners-Lee realised they could share information by exploiting an emerging technology called hypertext. (World Wide Web Foundation, 1989). The web contains sites for everything. You can use search engines such as Google to find what you need. Founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin met at Stanford University in 1995. By 1996, they had built a search engine (initially called BackRub) that used links to determine the importance of individual web pages. (Company – Google, 2016). Alongside, Google in the top most looked at sites is social media giant, Facebook.

“Social media is a platform for creating and sharing content with the world. The “social” part: refers to interacting with other people by sharing information with them and receiving information from them. The “media” part: refers to an instrument of communication, like the internet (while TV, radio and newspapers are examples of more traditional forms of media). Okay, so from these two separate terms, we can pull a basic definition together: Social media are web-based communication tools that enable people to interact with each other by both sharing and consuming information.” (Nations, 2016)

The first social media site launched in 1997, it was called Six Degrees. It was named after Frigyes Karinthy’s theory that we are within six steps away from a friend of a friend, the six degrees of separation. The site allowed the users to have a profile and befriend other users. Today we have sites like Facebook which started as nothing more than a Harvard student chat site and now has 1.7 billion active users worldwide (it’s so big it has its own film ‘The Social Network’).

Designers choice of social media would be Instagram as it is a photo-sharing app. The app allows people to upload a photo, add hashtags then share to followers. The hashtags allow the image it be found if someone is looking for images in the selected hashtag. Some artists have created businesses from this app. 8,000 Instagram followers wait each day for Austin to post a photo his artwork and declare it “for sale.” Within minutes, he says, followers start emailing him. Whoever emails him first gets the piece. (Renfro and Insider, 2016). Instagram has been hailed as the new generations art gallery. As new research shows that consumers view photo-sharing platform Instagram as “the most inspiring and beautiful social network” (Millington, 2015). We don’t need to head out and find things for ourselves. We can do this online. This is the same with promoting my own business, I don’t need a business card anymore, everything is online. Social media sites such as Linked in is my generations business card. LinkedIn is a social networking site designed specifically for the business community. The goal of the site is to allow registered members to establish and document networks of people they know and trust professionally. (Rouse, 2016)

Instant communication is one of the best thing about the modern world, this allows designers like myself to have the ability to complete work for companies all over the globe without leaving the comfort of our home or offices. It gives us chances and possibilities that didn’t exist twenty, thirty years ago. Communication of this type would only happen face to face without the internet and you would be confined to the places around you. As a designer the thought of not having the internet means my job would be almost none existent, as I come from a small town where not a lot of advertising or art is ever needed or produced.

One of the first personal computers was created by Apple in 1984. The Macintosh was meant to shatter the bubble the world was living in at the time. It did. The today computer allowed us to have everything at our finger tips. I’m writing this essay on a computer, I completed most of my research on the internet. I use software such as Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop to complete my work. The computer is the key to my job. Graphic designers can work with any materials but most of the art work you see nowadays is has something to do with a computer. It is then shared to social media and is out there for the world to see. The internet allows our work to travel without us having to.

Although, the internet is one of the best inventions ever made. It was made to make us free to share information all over the world. However, one of the problems with the internet and technology is that we aren’t really free. We are plagued with constant fear that our work will be copied. This is because it’s so easy to share, but it’s even easier to steal. Without the right protection, you could fall victim. Plagiarism is a big part of the design industry today, whether it be fonts, pictures or layouts, it’s very easy to take a little bit too much inspiration from a design. – IMAGE TWO – The Tokyo Olympic Games logo came into the firing line last year after someone claimed plagiarism saying it was also identical to one of their works. Although the games denied any wrong doing even going as far to saying “With a logo this simple and using basic geometric shapes, similarities are bound to happen,” (Alderson as cited by Vit, 2015).

It’s weird to think that only thirty to forty years ago, graphic designers were having to complete everything by hand, in huge studios with lots of people on type writers and at printing presses having to create posters, flyers, letter, newspapers, any form of printed art work or design, one by one. They would then have to go out and share them in shops, street corners anywhere that people would look at their work. Now we have thirteen inch computers to do all the work for us. All we have to do is press the buttons, move the mouse and computer does it for us, then a few shares on social media our work can be seen anywhere in the world. I cannot imagine what the future will bring but I’m excited to see.

Bibliography
BBC (2006a) GCSE Bitesize: How did popular entertainment develop during this period? Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/tch_wjec/usa19101929/3culturesocietychanges3.shtml (Accessed: 8 December 2016).
BBC (2006b) GCSE Bitesize: What is globalisation? Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/globalisation/globalisation_rev1.shtml (Accessed: 4 December 2016).
BBC (2012) The history of dance: Charleston. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/strictlycomedancing/entries/45cd7d57-dd59-32e9-b33c-a246d968f1b4 (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
BBC (2014) Propaganda. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/0/ww1/25356306 (Accessed: 8 December 2016).
BBC (2016) Tim Berners-Lee. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/z2nbgk7 (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
Billie Holiday & Louis Armstrong – farewell to Storyville (2006) Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLHCR0OTqhs (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
Company – Google (no date) Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/about/company/ (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
Horton, H. (2016) Who was Frankie manning and what is the Lindy hop? Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/05/25/who-was-frankie-manning-and-what-is-the-lindy-hop/ (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
Imgur (2012) Original Savoy ballroom Lindy hop contest poster (cleaned up in PhotoShop). Available at: http://imgur.com/r/SwingDancing/x4Mnt (Accessed: 8 December 2016).
Jet 23 mar 1992 (1992) Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=7cADAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA58&dq=the+home+of+happy+feet+savoy&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiQzMXN6NjQAhXhDsAKHcknDv4Q6AEIGjAA#v=onepage&q=the%20home%20of%20happy%20feet%20savoy&f=false (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
LIFE (1943) LIFE 23 Aug 1943. Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=PlAEAAAAMBAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=twopage&q&f=false (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
Mathews, A. (2013) YouTube success story. Available at: https://successstory.com/companies/youtube (Accessed: 4 December 2016).
Millington, A. (2015) Is Instagram ‘the art gallery of the future’? Available at: https://www.marketingweek.com/2015/05/20/is-instagram-the-art-gallery-of-the-future/ (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
Nations, D. (2016) Serious question: What exactly is social media? Available at: https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-social-media-explaining-the-big-trend-3486616 (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
Nieva, R. (2016) YouTube started as an online dating site. Available at: https://www.cnet.com/uk/news/youtube-started-as-an-online-dating-site/ (Accessed: 4 December 2016).
O’Neill, M. (2010) 5 ways YouTube has changed the world forever. Available at: http://www.adweek.com/socialtimes/youtube-changed-the-world/27206 (Accessed: 4 December 2016).
Renfro, K. and Insider, T. (2016) This artist makes a living ‘flash-selling’ his work on Instagram. Available at: http://uk.businessinsider.com/how-artist-makes-a-living-by-selling-paintings-on-instagram-2016-1?r=US&IR=T/#four-years-ago-austin-quit-his-job-working-in-a-wonderbread-factory-to-move-to-toronto-and-dedicate-his-life-to-his-artwork-1 (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
Rouse, M. (2016) What is LinkedIn? – definition from WhatIs.Com. Available at: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/LinkedIn (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
Sony and LLC, P. (no date) Go back to your woods lyrics – Robbie Robertson. Available at: http://www.lyricsfreak.com/r/robbie+robertson/go+back+to+your+woods_20203257.html (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
World Wide Web Foundation (1989) Available at: http://webfoundation.org/about/vision/history-of-the-web/ (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
Citations, Quotes & Annotations
BBC (2006a) GCSE Bitesize: How did popular entertainment develop during this period? Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/tch_wjec/usa19101929/3culturesocietychanges3.shtml (Accessed: 8 December 2016).
(BBC, 2006a)
BBC (2006b) GCSE Bitesize: What is globalisation? Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/globalisation/globalisation_rev1.shtml (Accessed: 4 December 2016).
(BBC, 2006b)
BBC (2012) The history of dance: Charleston. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/strictlycomedancing/entries/45cd7d57-dd59-32e9-b33c-a246d968f1b4 (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
(BBC, 2012)
BBC (2014) Propaganda. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/0/ww1/25356306 (Accessed: 8 December 2016).
(BBC, 2014)
BBC (2016) Tim Berners-Lee. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/z2nbgk7 (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
(BBC, 2016)
Billie Holiday & Louis Armstrong – farewell to Storyville (2006) Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLHCR0OTqhs (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
(Billie Holiday & Louis Armstrong – farewell to Storyville, 2006)
Company – Google (no date) Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/about/company/ (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
(Company – Google, no date)
Horton, H. (2016) Who was Frankie manning and what is the Lindy hop? Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/05/25/who-was-frankie-manning-and-what-is-the-lindy-hop/ (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
(Horton, 2016)
Imgur (2012) Original Savoy ballroom Lindy hop contest poster (cleaned up in PhotoShop). Available at: http://imgur.com/r/SwingDancing/x4Mnt (Accessed: 8 December 2016).
(Imgur, 2012)
Jet 23 mar 1992 (1992) Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=7cADAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA58&dq=the+home+of+happy+feet+savoy&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiQzMXN6NjQAhXhDsAKHcknDv4Q6AEIGjAA#v=onepage&q=the%20home%20of%20happy%20feet%20savoy&f=false (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
(Jet 23 mar 1992, 1992)
LIFE (1943) LIFE 23 Aug 1943. Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=PlAEAAAAMBAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=twopage&q&f=false (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
(LIFE, 1943)
Mathews, A. (2013) YouTube success story. Available at: https://successstory.com/companies/youtube (Accessed: 4 December 2016).
(Mathews, 2013)
Millington, A. (2015) Is Instagram ‘the art gallery of the future’? Available at: https://www.marketingweek.com/2015/05/20/is-instagram-the-art-gallery-of-the-future/ (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
(Millington, 2015)
Nations, D. (2016) Serious question: What exactly is social media? Available at: https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-social-media-explaining-the-big-trend-3486616 (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
(Nations, 2016)
Nieva, R. (2016) YouTube started as an online dating site. Available at: https://www.cnet.com/uk/news/youtube-started-as-an-online-dating-site/ (Accessed: 4 December 2016).
(Nieva, 2016)
O’Neill, M. (2010) 5 ways YouTube has changed the world forever. Available at: http://www.adweek.com/socialtimes/youtube-changed-the-world/27206 (Accessed: 4 December 2016).
(O’Neill, 2010)
Renfro, K. and Insider, T. (2016) This artist makes a living ‘flash-selling’ his work on Instagram. Available at: http://uk.businessinsider.com/how-artist-makes-a-living-by-selling-paintings-on-instagram-2016-1?r=US&IR=T/#four-years-ago-austin-quit-his-job-working-in-a-wonderbread-factory-to-move-to-toronto-and-dedicate-his-life-to-his-artwork-1 (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
(Renfro and Insider, 2016)
Rouse, M. (2016) What is LinkedIn? – definition from WhatIs.Com. Available at: http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/LinkedIn (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
(Rouse, 2016)
Sony and LLC, P. (no date) Go back to your woods lyrics – Robbie Robertson. Available at: http://www.lyricsfreak.com/r/robbie+robertson/go+back+to+your+woods_20203257.html (Accessed: 3 December 2016).
(Sony and LLC, no date)
World Wide Web Foundation (1989) Available at: http://webfoundation.org/about/vision/history-of-the-web/ (Accessed: 5 December 2016).
(World Wide Web Foundation, 1989)

 

– IMAGE ONE –

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(Imgur, 2012)

– IMAGE TWO –

pastedGraphic_1.png

(Alderson, 2015)

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